As the 21st century began, religion was spreading rapidly. The collapse of communism had left a psychological vacuum that was being filled with resurgent religion, fundamentalism was a rising political force in the United States, and the 9/11 attacks drew attention to the power of militant Islam. There were claims of a global resurgence of religion.
An analysis of religious trends from 1981 to 2007 in 49 countries containing 60% of the world’s population did not find a global resurgence of religion—most high-income countries were becoming less religious—however, it did show that in 33 of the 49 countries studied, people had become more religious (Norris and Inglehart, 2011). But since 2007, things have changed with surprising speed. From 2007 to 2020, an overwhelming majority (43 out of 49) of these same countries became less religious. This decline in belief is strongest in high-income countries but it is evident across most of the world (Inglehart, 2021).
The most dramatic shift away from religion took place among the American public. For years, the United States had been the key case demonstrating that economic modernization need not produce secularization. But recently, the American public has been moving away from religion along with virtually all other high-income countries—in fact, religiosity has been declining more rapidly in the US than in most other countries.
Several forces are driving this trend but the most powerful one is the waning grip of a set of beliefs closely linked with the imperative of maintaining high birth rates. For many centuries, most societies assigned women the role of producing as many children as possible and discouraged divorce, abortion, homosexuality, contraception, and any other sexual behavior not linked with reproduction. Virtually all major world religions encouraged high fertility because it was necessary, in the world of high infant mortality and low life expectancy that prevailed until recently, for the average woman to produce five to eight children in order to simply replace the population. Religions that didn’t emphasize these norms gradually disappeared.
A growing number of countries have now attained high life expectancies and drastically reduced infant mortality rates, making these traditional cultural norms no longer necessary. This process didn’t happen overnight. The major world religions had presented pro-fertility norms as absolute moral rules and firmly resisted change. People only slowly give up the familiar beliefs and societal roles they have known since childhood, concerning gender and sexual behavior. But when a society reaches a sufficiently high level of economic and physical security, younger generations grow up taking that security for granted and the norms around fertility recede. Ideas, practices, and laws concerning gender equality, divorce, abortion, and homosexuality are now changing rapidly. Almost all high-income societies have recently reached a tipping point where the balance shifts from pro-fertility norms being dominant, to individual-choice norms being dominant.
Several other factors help explain the waning of religion. In the United States, politics explains part of the decline. Since the 1990s, the Republican Party has sought to win support by adopting conservative Christian positions on same sex marriage, abortion, and other cultural issues. But this appeal to religious voters has had the corollary effect of pushing other voters, especially young liberal ones, away from religion. The uncritical embrace of President Donald Trump by conservative evangelical leaders has accelerated this trend. And the Roman Catholic Church has lost adherents because of its own crises. A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that an overwhelming majority US adults were aware of recent reports of sexual abuse by Catholic priests, and most of them believed that the abuses were “ongoing problems that are still happening.” Accordingly, many US Catholics said that they have scaled back attendance at mass in response to these reports.
Although some religious conservatives warn that the retreat from faith will lead to a collapse of social cohesion and public morality, the evidence doesn’t support this claim. Surprising as it may seem, countries that are less religious actually tend to be less corrupt and have lower murder rates than religious ones.
Each year, Transparency International publishes a Corruption Perception Index that ranks public-sector corruption in 180 countries and territories. Is corruption less widespread in religious countries than less religious ones? The answer is an unequivocal “no”—in fact, religious countries actually tend to be more corrupt than secular ones.
This pattern also applies to other crimes, such as murder. Surprising as it may seem, the murder rate is more than ten times as high in the most religious countries as it is in the least religious countries. Some relatively poor countries have low murder rates, but overall, prosperous countries that provide their residents with material and legal security are much safer than poor countries. It’s not that religiosity causes corruption and murder, but that both crime and religiosity tend to be high in poor countries.
In early agrarian societies, when most people lived just above the survival level, religion may have been the most effective way to maintain order and cohesion. But as traditional religiosity declines, an equally strong set of moral norms seems to be emerging to fill the void. Survey evidence from countries containing over 90% of the world’s population indicates that in highly secure and secular countries, people are giving increasingly high priority to self-expression and free choice, with a growing emphasis on human rights, tolerance of outsiders, environmental protection, gender equality, and freedom of speech.
As societies develop from agrarian to industrial to knowledge-based, growing existential security tends to reduce the importance of religion in people’s lives and people become less obedient to traditional religious leaders and institutions. That trend seems likely to continue, but pandemics such as the current one reduce peoples’ sense of existential security. If the pandemic were to endure for decades, or lead to an enduring Great Depression, the theory underlying this article implies that the cultural changes of recent decades would reverse themselves.
That’s conceivable but it would run counter to the trend toward growing prosperity and rising life expectancy that has been spreading throughout the world for the past 500 years. This trend rarely reverses itself for long because it is driven by technological innovation which, once it emerges, usually persists and spreads. If that happens, the long-term outlook is for public morality to be less determined by traditional religions, and increasingly shaped by the culture of growing acceptance of outgroups, gender equality, and environmentalism that has been emerging in recent decades.
Feature image by Aaron Burden
What you mean by “religion”? is unclear to me. Do you mean public worship? subscription/membership in a physical or publicly-advertised TV congregation? religiosity?
One sub text that slip through the net ?
That society rob of a safety net of explosive expression, because of the new look at the old saying “Sticks and Stones may brake my bones, but words,will never,hert me” To day we are rob of the safety valve, so we get a slap on the wrist for braking bones, and are sent to prison for words used in the heat of the moment?
So who do we take it out on “The potted plant, the dog, I shall not go any further??
At the age of nearly 77years. I can remember all the hateful things said to me as I grow up, and out of learning difficulties.
Now the punchis, kicks. I carry in my anxiety dreams to this day.
Not clear what is meant by religion and its replacement by morality instead. Where do morals originate?
The recent controversy in France about insulting cartoons aimed at Muslims exposed a sort of secular religious fundamentalism.
Your definition of religion must surely be “gods, goblins and djinns”.
The secular religions – nationalism, communism, democracy and fascism – would thereby be excluded (as so would Confucianism).
I always thought that the explanation the USA was a high-religion low- trust out-lier was because they do not have the socializing health/security system that the other western industrialized educated rich democratic (WEIRD) countries have developed. Once we see the ACA (Obama Care) rolled out more widely we will might predict further undermining of traditional conservative religion in the US It is also not entirely true that religion goes away: the hold that both traditional patriarchal religions and collectivist ideologies have softens and are replaced by more individualistic expressiive forms of seeking and other kinds of woo. WEIRD countries are hugely entrepreneurial in authoring and developing these forms.
Interesting to also note that nearly all inmates in our prisons are religious and the same goes for serial killers. Whether religion screws people up or simply attracts crazy people it certainly has some nasty followers.
God saved America.
Consider the two years: 1805 and 1818
The first is the birth-year of Joseph Smith, a prophet in the traditional mould.
The second that of Karl Marx, a prophet is the secular mould.
The ocean kept out Euro-madness from the shores of America – and they made it all the way here, to Bangladesh.
Nationalism, communism, and today fascism.
Exactly what is considered a religion or simply spiritual? AA or NA is spiritual and helped me quit drinking – although they are not bonafied religions. I’ve been sober for 21 years and helped me fully deal with my deeper problems. I’ve, also, volunteered with Catholic Worker Houses and the Salvation Army. Make no mistake many spiritual institutions and religious organizations do a service for their respective countries which would suffer in a purely secular culture.
[…] There is a difference in religious trends between high-income and low-income countries. The majority of reports agree that religion is less popular today among high-income countries than it was previously. From 2007 to 2020, an overwhelming majority (43 out of 49) of these same countries became LESS religious. This decline in belief is strongest in high-income countries, but it is also evident across most of the world. Furthermore, the decline is most rapid in America when compared to all countries studied (Inglehart, December 2020). […]
[…] “The long-term outlook is for public morality to be less determined by traditional religions, and increasingly shaped by the culture of growing acceptance of outgroups, gender equality, and environmentalism that has been emerging in recent decades.” — Ronald F. Inglehart, Oxford University Press blog […]
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