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Re-learning the lessons from Elizabeth Edwards’ death

On medical progress and stage 4 breast cancer

By Gayle A. Sulik

Elizabeth Edwards died from stage 4 breast cancer (also known as metastatic breast cancer) on December 7th, 2010 at the age of 61. Ms. Edwards was a well-known public figure, notably the wife of former Senator John Edwards, and an accomplished lawyer, author, and health advocate. Her death inspired new discussions of Stage 4 breast cancer, finally shining a light on what has been a relatively invisible segment of the breast cancer community: the diagnosed who live from scan to scan, treatment to treatment, with the knowledge that neither medical progress nor positive attitude will likely keep them from dying from breast cancer.

Following Ms. Edwards’ breast cancer diagnosis in 2004, she quickly became a celebrity survivor. She expressed optimism about cure and continued to pursue an active personal and professional life. After learning in 2007 that she had a recurrence which had already spread to her bones, Ms. Edwards still looked for a “silver lining” despite the fact that her breast cancer was no longer considered to be curable. At that point, doctors called her breast cancer “treatable” – meaning that she would be in some kind of therapy for the rest of her life.

Ms. Edwards knew that she might not live to see her children grow up. Yet  public discussions were hesitant to acknowledge this reality. I remember the PBS news report that featured clips from a press conference in which Edwards’ medical doctor, Lisa Carey of the University of North Carolina Breast Center, stated that many women with stage 4 breast cancer “do very well for a number of years.”

In the interview that followed with Dr. Julie Gralow of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the discussion of prognosis was similarly vague. Dr. Gralow rightly revealed that doctors have “no crystal ball” to see the future and that average survival rates cannot be used to predict an individual’s life span. However, she also circumvented the prognosis issue by using phrases such as “years of survival” and living out “long lives.” We heard about “terrific new therapies,” “great treatments…that don’t cause a lot of symptoms,” and and a new “era of personalized cancer therapy.” Dr. Gralow stressed that Ms. Edwards gives hope to those who are fighting metastatic breast cancer and that “her biggest issue is that she has a couple of young kids to raise.”

Immediately following Ms. Edwards’ death, Dr. Barron Lerner wrote a warm, thoughtful, and informative essay in The New York Times about the lessons society can learn from Ms. Edwards, including the limits of current treatments and the dubiousness of the term “survivor” that, while empowering in some ways can be misleading in others. For the 49,000 new people each year who develop what amounts to be a terminal breast cancer condition, the term can be empty if not infuriating. He acknowledged further that, “there was no way to sugarcoat the latest news.” Finally, some of the truths about metastatic disease were revealed without the sweetness and hype.

The Times continued its reporting of metastatic breast cancer a month later in “A Pink-Ribbon Race, Years Long,” which spoke about the limitations of medical progress for this segment of the diagnosed. Statements from notable medical doctors acknowledged that, despite the fact that stage 4 patients “enjoy a higher quality of life than patients did in the past, because treatments are better focused and have fewer side effects,” these treatments add only an “incremental amount to the length of life.” Likewise, according to Dr. Susan Love, “The average survival of women with metastatic breast cancer from the time of the first appearance of the metastasis is between two to three and a half years.” Although no one knows where an individual prognosis fits within average survival statistics, Ms. Edwards’ passage from breast cancer diagnosis (2004) to recurrence (2007) to death (2010) reveals this timeline with unsettling clarity.

Elizabeth Edwards’ journey with breast cancer tells a story of survivorship that is complicated and tragic. Except for its public character, it is not unlike those of the 40,000 women and hundreds of men who die from breast cancer every year. Though she could have been an outlier like the occasional woman who has metastases throughout her bones and is alive 20 years later, outliers do not negate the patterns. Stage 4 cancers of all types are the silent killers and, surprisingly, the least funded categories of cancer in terms of research.

Despite the lessons we can learn from Elizabeth Edwards, there is a strong societal push to see the cancer glass as half full, particularly when focusing on survivorship statistics as indicators of medical progress. Although there has been a 20 percent rise in cancer survivorship overall from 2001 to 2007, The New York Times reports that “the death rate from cancer…has stayed virtually the same as it was in 1950.” Yes, 65 percent of cancer survivors have lived at least five years since diagnosis, 40 percent have lived 10 years or more, and nearly 10 percent have lived 25 years or longer. In turn, 35 percent will have died in five years, 60 percent will have died in ten, and, for 65 percent of the diagnosed, cancer will be the eventual cause of death. A glass that is half full is also half empty.

I want to have hope for my friends and family members who are dealing with aggressive and late stage cancers. I even wish for miracles. But hope for a society wrestling with cancer wrests upon the clear acknowledgment that the only true indicator of medical progress overall would be a significant reduction in the number of deaths and vast improvements in quality of life. For the term survivor to have meaning in this situation there must be an understanding that at stage 4, the only way to “survive” breast cancer is to die from something else. As a society, we’ve got to do better than that.

Gayle A. Sulik, Ph.D. is a medical sociologist and was a 2008 Fellow of the National Endowment for the Humanities for her research on breast cancer culture. She is author of Pink Ribbon Blues: How Breast Cancer Culture Undermines Women’s Health. You can read her previous OUPblog posts here and learn more on her website, where this article originally appeared.

Recent Comments

  1. […] This essay was republished on March 15, 2010 on the Oxford University Blog. […]

  2. ellen

    excellent reporting! the conversation about bc funding and research has got to change.
    Have you read the 2020 deadline from NBCC? Their is no mention of us at all! The word metastatic is used when telling how they need to prevent metastases… and for the 15,000 of us living day to day with this disease.. for the one woman who dies every 14 minutes in the US from mbc… NOTHING! We remain hidden away in the shadows.

    Any suggestions on how we, the metastatic population, can change this conversation?
    You have my email.. I would love to hear your thoughts and suggestions on this.

  3. Gayle Sulik

    Ellen, thank you for your comment. The conversation does have to change. I know that NBCC has convened a committee on Metastasis to meet in August, and that there are a number of people who are working to make sure that the committee has a focus on stage 4. I’ll drop you an email with more information. Also, you may want to contact Metavivor (www.metavivor.org). This is a great organization that is focused on metastatic breast cancer and research. – GS

  4. Leilani Powers

    Quote… Stage 4 cancers of all types are the silent killers and, surprisingly, the least funded categories of cancer in terms of research. Unquote.

    You hit the nail on the head there. I am stage IV and I feel like I’ve been shooo’d to the corner, while they focus on curing everyone else. The customary ‘there there honey, you’ll be ok’… You would think, logically thinking of course, that focus would be spent more on Stage IV since that is the stage that takes lives. Don’t get me wrong, I appreciate all the advancements they have made in recent years, but as you have well noted, not much has been done for those of us left out in the cold.

    Thank you so much for your article, please put me on your mailing list as well. :)

    But I however do use the word ‘survivor’. Every day I am still alive, I am a survivor!

  5. […] Re-learning the lessons from Elizabeth Edwards’ death (oup.com) […]

  6. Thabitha Vani

    My mother (50 yrs old) is suffering from Metastatic breast cancer. The word ‘survivor’ seems to be very painful when I see my mother suffering with the pains all over the body, breathlessness, difficulty in passing urine, struggling to get up by herself to do her own routine works. I make a wish to God that no one in the world should suffer like this. Sometimes I pray to God that it is better to release her from the mortal body and make her free from the world. It is difficult to pray like this for our dear ones. But I think we can do this for whom we love the most. I love my mother so much. I can’t see her struggling nor I can’t imagine her to be no more with me and my younger brother. I request all the readers to join me in my prayers to surrender totally my mother into God’s hand for His Will.

  7. […] “Re-learning the lessons from Elizabeth Edwards’ death: Medical Progress and Stage 4 Breast Cancer,” Oxford University Press Blog […]


    My mother is 88 years old. She was diagnosed with stage 4 metastatic breast cancer .it’s was difficult for me to accepted she also has dementia..I just pray to God
    she would not suffer that she would go peacefully .
    Pray for me

  9. […] by stories of breast cancer heroines who braved the disease and still died, and charge that we “pinkwash” breast cancer while not seriously reducing risk and improving survival. They want transparency and […]

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